Real statistics of this blog in this year – Genome sequencing: A solution to India’s problem of rare genetic diseases @ Is Crispr the Next Antibiotic? In nature, the gene-editing tool Crispr protects bacteria against viruses. Now it’s being harnessed in the fight against superbugs and the flu @ Living Skin Can Now be 3D-Printed With Blood Vessels Included – Development is significant step toward skin grafts that can be integrated into patient’s skin & Maltese among group of scientists who have discovered new therapies to combat cancer @ MILK FROM TEETH: DENTAL STEM CELLS CAN GENERATE MILK-PRODUCING CELLS & Promising Results Reported in Tay-Sachs Gene Therapy Trial

http://www.linkedin.com https://www.genengnews.com/insights/promising-results-reported-in-tay-sachs-gene-therapy-trial/?fbclid=IwAR3bl9XD14mamjbZkJoWJf14g49j-ktI7CfIV5gmpSFfuvLKa4f-94FVt1I

https://transbiotex.wordpress.com/2019/11/03/milk-from-teeth-dental-stem-cells-can-generate-milk-producing-cells/?fbclid=IwAR2axZMlq_XBtg4xdyjVduTutGeu-R5APGywk4KeIhxG4ByxH-_gJyk9YJs

http://www.google.com https://www.tvm.com.mt/en/news/maltese-among-group-of-scientists-who-have-discovered-new-therapies-to-combat-cancer/?fbclid=IwAR34WiYi06n1AXtQP2r68jcQNit8FyWWlkiA4iCKNLiNJ8C454Qtuvp_htw

https://news.rpi.edu/content/2019/11/01/living-skin-can-now-be-3d-printed-blood-vessels-included?fbclid=IwAR18ys6QTbFd-G_u79qbgRclM7DBuGWxg22GF668U1VXyOibYoFDlfwDAqY

https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/science/genome-sequencing-a-solution-to-indias-problem-of-rare-genetic-diseases/articleshow/71870805.cms

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Is Crispr the Next Antibiotic?

In nature, the gene-editing tool Crispr protects bacteria against viruses. Now it’s being harnessed in the fight against superbugs and the flu.

A culture of Salmonella enterica. In an experiment, Canadian researchers were able to use a Crispr-associated enzyme to kill S. enterica, which is the source of many food-borne illnesses.
A culture of Salmonella enterica. In an experiment, Canadian researchers were able to use a Crispr-associated enzyme to kill S. enterica, which is the source of many food-borne illnesses.Credit…Daniela Beckmann/Science Source

By Knvul Sheikh

  • Published Oct. 28, 2019Updated Oct. 29, 2019
    • 31

For decades, scientists and doctors have treated common bacterial and viral infections with fairly blunt therapies. If you developed a sinus infection or a stomach bug, you would likely be given a broad-spectrum antibiotic that would clear out many different types of bacteria. Antiviral drugs help treat viral illnesses in much the same way, by hindering the pathogen’s ability to reproduce and spread in the body.

But microorganisms are quick to evolve, and many have developed defenses against the methods devised to kill them. An increasing number of bacteria are now resistant to one or more antibiotics. Each year roughly 700,000 people around the world die from such infections, and by 2050 the number could rise to 10 million, according to United Nations estimates. Viruses, too, quickly evolve new ways of disguising themselves from drugs, often by hiding inside host cells. Less than 100 antiviral drugs have successfully made it all the way to the clinic since the first was approved in 1963.

Desperate to find new medicines against pathogenic microorganisms, scientists are turning to Crispr, the gene-editing tool. Crispr has typically been considered for macroscopic tasks: altering mosquitoes so they can’t spread malaria, editing tomatoes so they are more flavorful and curing certain genetic diseases in humans. Now researchers are harnessing Crispr to turn a bacterium’s machinery against itself, or against viruses that infect human cells.

“Crispr is the next step in antimicrobial therapy,” said David Edgell, a biologist at the Western University in London, Ontario, and the lead author of a study published earlier this month in Nature Communications.

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Crispr is a specialized region of DNA that creates what amount to genetic scissors — enzymes that allow the cell (or a scientist) to precisely edit other DNA or its sister molecule, RNA. (Crispr is shorthand for “clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats.”) Crispr was originally discovered in bacteria, where it helps keep track of past injury. When a virus attacks, the bacterium stores small chunks of the viral genome within its own DNA. This helps the bacterium recognize viral infections when they occur again. Then, using Crispr-associated enzymes, it can disarm the virus and prevent the infection from spreading.

In their recent study, Dr. Edgell and his colleagues successfully used a Crispr-associated enzyme called Cas9 to eliminate a species of Salmonella. By programming the Cas9 to view the bacterium itself as the enemy, Dr. Edgell and his colleagues were able to force Salmonella to make lethal cuts to its own genome.

The team began with a conjugated plasmid — a small packet of genetic material that can replicate itself and be passed from one bacterium to the next. To the plasmid the scientists added the encoded instructions for Crispr enzymes that would target Salmonella DNA. The plasmid was then tucked inside E. coli bacteria. Dr. Edgell reasoned that most types of E. coli are typically part of a healthy gut microbiome, and would already be present if a person ingested pathogenic Salmonella by, say, eating a contaminated salad. The E. coli could then transfer the engineered plasmid to the Salmonella, where the Crispr system would activate, destroying the bad bacteria.

That is exactly what the researchers observed in a petri dish. The Crispr system wiped out nearly all Salmonella bacteria, while leaving E. coli intact.

“This represents a significant advance in being able to target bacteria in a highly specific way,” said Mitch McVey, a biologist at Tufts University who was not involved in the study.

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Crispr-based antibiotic pills aren’t yet anywhere near pharmacy shelves. But developing such treatments could allow scientists to harness the power of the human body’s own resident microbes in preventing disease.

“Scientists are starting to figure out that microbiota can also be extremely beneficial for our health,” said Luciano Marraffini, a microbiologist at Rockefeller University and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.

Conventional antibiotics do not distinguish between good and bad bacteria, eradicating everything indiscriminately and occasionally creating problems for people with weakened immune systems.

“A major benefit of Crispr is that we can program it to kill only specific pathogenic bacteria and leave alone the rest of our healthy microbes,” Dr. Marraffini said.

A few companies have started to pursue Crispr-based antibiotics that can be delivered through viruses that have been engineered so that they cannot reproduce or cause infections themselves, as well as other methods. Dr. Marraffini is a co-founder of one such start-up, Eligo Bioscience.

The specificity of Crispr is equally enticing to researchers looking to target pathogenic viruses. Instead of having Crispr kill viruses that infect bacteria, as it does in nature, scientists are programming it to chop up viruses that infect humans. In a study, also published this month in Molecular Cell, scientists at the Broad Institute of M.I.T. and Harvard demonstrated that another Crispr enzyme, Cas13, could be programmed to detect and kill three different single-stranded RNA viruses that infect human cells: influenza A virus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus and vesicular stomatitis virus.

Using this Crispr system, researchers saw up to a 40-fold reduction in viral RNA within 24 hours. The enzymes damaged the viral genomes significantly enough that few viruses could infect new cells. In the case of the flu virus, Cas13 reduced its infectiousness by more than 300-fold.

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“This is a great proof-of-concept,” said Rodolphe Barrangou, a microbiologist at North Carolina State University, who also co-founded a company for Crispr-based antimicrobial products and was not involved in the study. If researchers can design Crispr technology against three fairly mild human viruses, such as influenza, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus and vesicular stomatitis virus, they can likely modify it to treat more deadly viral infections as well.

Compared to current antiviral drugs, Crispr has the advantage of being easy to tweak as needed. “If a virus evolves and mutates, we can simply change the Crispr system to match whatever the virus is doing,” said Cameron Myhrvold, a postdoctoral researcher at Broad.

Now researchers face the challenge of demonstrating that Crispr antibacterial and antiviral drugs are effective in living animals and in humans, not just in the lab, and that they will be cheaper than conventional therapies, Dr. Barrangou said.

“We’re not ready for clinical prime time yet,” he said. “But we’re getting there.”READ 31 COMMENTS

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November 1, 2019

Living Skin Can Now be 3D-Printed With Blood Vessels Included

Development is significant step toward skin grafts that can be integrated into patient’s skin

       

TROY, N.Y. — Researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute have developed a way to 3D print living skin, complete with blood vessels. The advancement, published online today in Tissue Engineering Part A, is a significant step toward creating grafts that are more like the skin our bodies produce naturally.

“Right now, whatever is available as a clinical product is more like a fancy Band-Aid,” said Pankaj Karande, an associate professor of chemical and biological engineering and member of the Center for Biotechnology and Interdisciplinary Studies (CBIS), who led this research at Rensselaer. “It provides some accelerated wound healing, but eventually it just falls off; it never really integrates with the host cells.” 

A significant barrier to that integration has been the absence of a functioning vascular system in the skin grafts.

Karande has been working on this challenge for several years, previously publishing one of the first papers showing that researchers could take two types of living human cells, make them into “bio-inks,” and print them into a skin-like structure. Since then, he and his team have been working with researchers from Yale School of Medicine to incorporate vasculature.

In this paper, the researchers show that if they add key elements — including human endothelial cells, which line the inside of blood vessels, and human pericyte cells, which wrap around the endothelial cells — with animal collagen and other structural cells typically found in a skin graft, the cells start communicating and forming a biologically relevant vascular structure within the span of a few weeks. 

Watch Karande explain this development:

“As engineers working to recreate biology, we’ve always appreciated and been aware of the fact that biology is far more complex than the simple systems we make in the lab,” Karande said. “We were pleasantly surprised to find that, once we start approaching that complexity, biology takes over and starts getting closer and closer to what exists in nature.”

Once the Yale team grafted it onto a special type of mouse, the vessels from the skin printed by the Rensselaer team began to communicate and connect with the mouse’s own vessels.

“That’s extremely important, because we know there is actually a transfer of blood and nutrients to the graft which is keeping the graft alive,” Karande said.

In order to make this usable at a clinical level, researchers need to be able to edit the donor cells using something like the CRISPR technology, so that the vessels can integrate and be accepted by the patient’s body.

“We are still not at that step, but we are one step closer,” Karande said.

“This significant development highlights the vast potential of 3D bioprinting in precision medicine, where solutions can be tailored to specific situations and eventually to individuals,” said Deepak Vashishth, the director CBIS. “This is a perfect example of how engineers at Rensselaer are solving challenges related to human health.”

Karande said more work will need to be done to address the challenges associated with burn patients, which include the loss of nerve and vascular endings. But the grafts his team has created bring researchers closer to helping people with more discrete issues, like diabetic or pressure ulcers.

“For those patients, these would be perfect, because ulcers usually appear at distinct locations on the body and can be addressed with smaller pieces of skin,” Karande said. “Wound healing typically takes longer in diabetic patients, and this could also help to accelerate that process.”

At Rensselaer, Karande’s team also includes Carolina Catarino, doctoral student in chemical and biological engineering. The Yale team includes Tania Baltazar, a postdoctoral researcher who previously worked on this project at Rensselaer; Dr. Jordan Pober, a professor of immunobiology; and Mark Saltzman, a professor of biomedical engineering.

This work was supported by a grant from the National Institutes of Health.

CONTACT

Reeve Hamilton
Director of Media Relations and Communications

(518) 833-4277
hamilr5@rpi.edu

For general inquiriesnewsmedia@rpi.edu

ABOUT RENSSELAER POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE

Founded in 1824, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute is America’s first technological research university. Rensselaer encompasses five schools, 32 research centers, more than 145 academic programs, and a dynamic community made up of more than 7,900 students and more than 100,000 living alumni. Rensselaer faculty and alumni include more than 145 National Academy members, six members of the National Inventors Hall of Fame, six National Medal of Technology winners, five National Medal of Science winners, and a Nobel Prize winner in Physics. With nearly 200 years of experience advancing scientific and technological knowledge, Rensselaer remains focused on addressing global challenges with a spirit of ingenuity and collaboration.

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November 1, 2019

Living Skin Can Now be 3D-Printed With Blood Vessels Included

Development is significant step toward skin grafts that can be integrated into patient’s skin

       

TROY, N.Y. — Researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute have developed a way to 3D print living skin, complete with blood vessels. The advancement, published online today in Tissue Engineering Part A, is a significant step toward creating grafts that are more like the skin our bodies produce naturally.

“Right now, whatever is available as a clinical product is more like a fancy Band-Aid,” said Pankaj Karande, an associate professor of chemical and biological engineering and member of the Center for Biotechnology and Interdisciplinary Studies (CBIS), who led this research at Rensselaer. “It provides some accelerated wound healing, but eventually it just falls off; it never really integrates with the host cells.” 

A significant barrier to that integration has been the absence of a functioning vascular system in the skin grafts.

Karande has been working on this challenge for several years, previously publishing one of the first papers showing that researchers could take two types of living human cells, make them into “bio-inks,” and print them into a skin-like structure. Since then, he and his team have been working with researchers from Yale School of Medicine to incorporate vasculature.

In this paper, the researchers show that if they add key elements — including human endothelial cells, which line the inside of blood vessels, and human pericyte cells, which wrap around the endothelial cells — with animal collagen and other structural cells typically found in a skin graft, the cells start communicating and forming a biologically relevant vascular structure within the span of a few weeks. 

Watch Karande explain this development:

“As engineers working to recreate biology, we’ve always appreciated and been aware of the fact that biology is far more complex than the simple systems we make in the lab,” Karande said. “We were pleasantly surprised to find that, once we start approaching that complexity, biology takes over and starts getting closer and closer to what exists in nature.”

Once the Yale team grafted it onto a special type of mouse, the vessels from the skin printed by the Rensselaer team began to communicate and connect with the mouse’s own vessels.

“That’s extremely important, because we know there is actually a transfer of blood and nutrients to the graft which is keeping the graft alive,” Karande said.

In order to make this usable at a clinical level, researchers need to be able to edit the donor cells using something like the CRISPR technology, so that the vessels can integrate and be accepted by the patient’s body.

“We are still not at that step, but we are one step closer,” Karande said.

“This significant development highlights the vast potential of 3D bioprinting in precision medicine, where solutions can be tailored to specific situations and eventually to individuals,” said Deepak Vashishth, the director CBIS. “This is a perfect example of how engineers at Rensselaer are solving challenges related to human health.”

Karande said more work will need to be done to address the challenges associated with burn patients, which include the loss of nerve and vascular endings. But the grafts his team has created bring researchers closer to helping people with more discrete issues, like diabetic or pressure ulcers.

“For those patients, these would be perfect, because ulcers usually appear at distinct locations on the body and can be addressed with smaller pieces of skin,” Karande said. “Wound healing typically takes longer in diabetic patients, and this could also help to accelerate that process.”

At Rensselaer, Karande’s team also includes Carolina Catarino, doctoral student in chemical and biological engineering. The Yale team includes Tania Baltazar, a postdoctoral researcher who previously worked on this project at Rensselaer; Dr. Jordan Pober, a professor of immunobiology; and Mark Saltzman, a professor of biomedical engineering.

This work was supported by a grant from the National Institutes of Health.

CONTACT

Reeve Hamilton
Director of Media Relations and Communications

(518) 833-4277
hamilr5@rpi.edu

For general inquiriesnewsmedia@rpi.edu

ABOUT RENSSELAER POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE

Founded in 1824, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute is America’s first technological research university. Rensselaer encompasses five schools, 32 research centers, more than 145 academic programs, and a dynamic community made up of more than 7,900 students and more than 100,000 living alumni. Rensselaer faculty and alumni include more than 145 National Academy members, six members of the National Inventors Hall of Fame, six National Medal of Technology winners, five National Medal of Science winners, and a Nobel Prize winner in Physics. With nearly 200 years of experience advancing scientific and technological knowledge, Rensselaer remains focused on addressing global challenges with a spirit of ingenuity and collaboration.

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(518) 276-6000

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Media Policy    |    Web Privacy Policy    |    Student Consumer Information    |    Title IX Policy    |    AccessibilityDevelopment is significant step toward skin grafts that can be integrated into patient’s skinSkip to main content Skip to main content Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) STUDENTS PARENTS FACULTY & STAFF ALUMNI Apply Visit Give Search ABOUT RENSSELAER ACADEMICS ADMISSIONS PRESIDENT RESEARCH STUDENT EXPERIENCE ATHLETICS TITLE IX NEWS RPI NEWS NEWS CATEGORIES RESEARCH ACADEMICS FACULTY COMMUNITY ARTS RELATED ARTICLES Four Decades of Data Sounds Early Warning on Lake George Manufacturing Day to Educate High School Students About Future Careers Polymerized Estrogen Shown to Protect Nervous System Cells Unique Sensory Feature Designed by Rensselaer Students to be Implemented at The Arc of Rensselaer County Protein Movement in Cells Hints at Greater Mysteries November 1, 2019 Living Skin Can Now be 3D-Printed With Blood Vessels Included Development is significant step toward skin grafts that can be integrated into patient’s skin         TROY, N.Y. — Researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute have developed a way to 3D print living skin, complete with blood vessels. The advancement, published online today in Tissue Engineering Part A, is a significant step toward creating grafts that are more like the skin our bodies produce naturally. “Right now, whatever is available as a clinical product is more like a fancy Band-Aid,” said Pankaj Karande, an associate professor of chemical and biological engineering and member of the Center for Biotechnology and Interdisciplinary Studies (CBIS), who led this research at Rensselaer. “It provides some accelerated wound healing, but eventually it just falls off; it never really integrates with the host cells.”  A significant barrier to that integration has been the absence of a functioning vascular system in the skin grafts. Karande has been working on this challenge for several years, previously publishing one of the first papers showing that researchers could take two types of living human cells, make them into “bio-inks,” and print them into a skin-like structure. Since then, he and his team have been working with researchers from Yale School of Medicine to incorporate vasculature. In this paper, the researchers show that if they add key elements — including human endothelial cells, which line the inside of blood vessels, and human pericyte cells, which wrap around the endothelial cells — with animal collagen and other structural cells typically found in a skin graft, the cells start communicating and forming a biologically relevant vascular structure within the span of a few weeks.  Watch Karande explain this development: “As engineers working to recreate biology, we’ve always appreciated and been aware of the fact that biology is far more complex than the simple systems we make in the lab,” Karande said. “We were pleasantly surprised to find that, once we start approaching that complexity, biology takes over and starts getting closer and closer to what exists in nature.” Once the Yale team grafted it onto a special type of mouse, the vessels from the skin printed by the Rensselaer team began to communicate and connect with the mouse’s own vessels. “That’s extremely important, because we know there is actually a transfer of blood and nutrients to the graft which is keeping the graft alive,” Karande said. In order to make this usable at a clinical level, researchers need to be able to edit the donor cells using something like the CRISPR technology, so that the vessels can integrate and be accepted by the patient’s body. “We are still not at that step, but we are one step closer,” Karande said. “This significant development highlights the vast potential of 3D bioprinting in precision medicine, where solutions can be tailored to specific situations and eventually to individuals,” said Deepak Vashishth, the director CBIS. “This is a perfect example of how engineers at Rensselaer are solving challenges related to human health.” Karande said more work will need to be done to address the challenges associated with burn patients, which include the loss of nerve and vascular endings. But the grafts his team has created bring researchers closer to helping people with more discrete issues, like diabetic or pressure ulcers. “For those patients, these would be perfect, because ulcers usually appear at distinct locations on the body and can be addressed with smaller pieces of skin,” Karande said. “Wound healing typically takes longer in diabetic patients, and this could also help to accelerate that process.” At Rensselaer, Karande’s team also includes Carolina Catarino, doctoral student in chemical and biological engineering. The Yale team includes Tania Baltazar, a postdoctoral researcher who previously worked on this project at Rensselaer; Dr. Jordan Pober, a professor of immunobiology; and Mark Saltzman, a professor of biomedical engineering. This work was supported by a grant from the National Institutes of Health. CONTACT Reeve Hamilton Director of Media Relations and Communications (518) 833-4277 hamilr5@rpi.edu For general inquiries: newsmedia@rpi.edu ABOUT RENSSELAER POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE Founded in 1824, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute is America’s first technological research university. Rensselaer encompasses five schools, 32 research centers, more than 145 academic programs, and a dynamic community made up of more than 7,900 students and more than 100,000 living alumni. Rensselaer faculty and alumni include more than 145 National Academy members, six members of the National Inventors Hall of Fame, six National Medal of Technology winners, five National Medal of Science winners, and a Nobel Prize winner in Physics. With nearly 200 years of experience advancing scientific and technological knowledge, Rensselaer remains focused on addressing global challenges with a spirit of ingenuity and collaboration. 110 Eighth Street Troy, NY USA 12180 (518) 276-6000 SCHOOLS & PROGRAMS Architecture Business Engineering Humanities, Arts, & Social Sciences IT & Web Science Science Research RPI CONNECTIONS Admissions Alumni/ae & Friends Athletics Human Resources Library RPInfo Strategic Communications Veterans ENGAGE Apply Now Be Social Contact Us Give to Rensselaer Visit Campus Send Feedback Copyright © 2019 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) Media Policy    |    Web Privacy Policy    |    Student Consumer Information    |    Title IX Policy    |    Accessibility Skip to main content Skip to main content Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) STUDENTS PARENTS FACULTY & STAFF ALUMNI Apply Visit Give Search ABOUT RENSSELAER ACADEMICS ADMISSIONS PRESIDENT RESEARCH STUDENT EXPERIENCE ATHLETICS TITLE IX NEWS RPI NEWS NEWS CATEGORIES RESEARCH ACADEMICS FACULTY COMMUNITY ARTS RELATED ARTICLES Four Decades of Data Sounds Early Warning on Lake George Manufacturing Day to Educate High School Students About Future Careers Polymerized Estrogen Shown to Protect Nervous System Cells Unique Sensory Feature Designed by Rensselaer Students to be Implemented at The Arc of Rensselaer County Protein Movement in Cells Hints at Greater Mysteries November 1, 2019 Living Skin Can Now be 3D-Printed With Blood Vessels Included Development is significant step toward skin grafts that can be integrated into patient’s skin         TROY, N.Y. — Researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute have developed a way to 3D print living skin, complete with blood vessels. The advancement, published online today in Tissue Engineering Part A, is a significant step toward creating grafts that are more like the skin our bodies produce naturally. “Right now, whatever is available as a clinical product is more like a fancy Band-Aid,” said Pankaj Karande, an associate professor of chemical and biological engineering and member of the Center for Biotechnology and Interdisciplinary Studies (CBIS), who led this research at Rensselaer. “It provides some accelerated wound healing, but eventually it just falls off; it never really integrates with the host cells.”  A significant barrier to that integration has been the absence of a functioning vascular system in the skin grafts. Karande has been working on this challenge for several years, previously publishing one of the first papers showing that researchers could take two types of living human cells, make them into “bio-inks,” and print them into a skin-like structure. Since then, he and his team have been working with researchers from Yale School of Medicine to incorporate vasculature. In this paper, the researchers show that if they add key elements — including human endothelial cells, which line the inside of blood vessels, and human pericyte cells, which wrap around the endothelial cells — with animal collagen and other structural cells typically found in a skin graft, the cells start communicating and forming a biologically relevant vascular structure within the span of a few weeks.  Watch Karande explain this development: “As engineers working to recreate biology, we’ve always appreciated and been aware of the fact that biology is far more complex than the simple systems we make in the lab,” Karande said. “We were pleasantly surprised to find that, once we start approaching that complexity, biology takes over and starts getting closer and closer to what exists in nature.” Once the Yale team grafted it onto a special type of mouse, the vessels from the skin printed by the Rensselaer team began to communicate and connect with the mouse’s own vessels. “That’s extremely important, because we know there is actually a transfer of blood and nutrients to the graft which is keeping the graft alive,” Karande said. In order to make this usable at a clinical level, researchers need to be able to edit the donor cells using something like the CRISPR technology, so that the vessels can integrate and be accepted by the patient’s body. “We are still not at that step, but we are one step closer,” Karande said. “This significant development highlights the vast potential of 3D bioprinting in precision medicine, where solutions can be tailored to specific situations and eventually to individuals,” said Deepak Vashishth, the director CBIS. “This is a perfect example of how engineers at Rensselaer are solving challenges related to human health.” Karande said more work will need to be done to address the challenges associated with burn patients, which include the loss of nerve and vascular endings. But the grafts his team has created bring researchers closer to helping people with more discrete issues, like diabetic or pressure ulcers. “For those patients, these would be perfect, because ulcers usually appear at distinct locations on the body and can be addressed with smaller pieces of skin,” Karande said. “Wound healing typically takes longer in diabetic patients, and this could also help to accelerate that process.” At Rensselaer, Karande’s team also includes Carolina Catarino, doctoral student in chemical and biological engineering. The Yale team includes Tania Baltazar, a postdoctoral researcher who previously worked on this project at Rensselaer; Dr. Jordan Pober, a professor of immunobiology; and Mark Saltzman, a professor of biomedical engineering. This work was supported by a grant from the National Institutes of Health. CONTACT Reeve Hamilton Director of Media Relations and Communications (518) 833-4277 hamilr5@rpi.edu For general inquiries: newsmedia@rpi.edu ABOUT RENSSELAER POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE Founded in 1824, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute is America’s first technological research university. Rensselaer encompasses five schools, 32 research centers, more than 145 academic programs, and a dynamic community made up of more than 7,900 students and more than 100,000 living alumni. Rensselaer faculty and alumni include more than 145 National Academy members, six members of the National Inventors Hall of Fame, six National Medal of Technology winners, five National Medal of Science winners, and a Nobel Prize winner in Physics. With nearly 200 years of experience advancing scientific and technological knowledge, Rensselaer remains focused on addressing global challenges with a spirit of ingenuity and collaboration. 110 Eighth Street Troy, NY USA 12180 (518) 276-6000 SCHOOLS & PROGRAMS Architecture Business Engineering Humanities, Arts, & Social Sciences IT & Web Science Science Research RPI CONNECTIONS Admissions Alumni/ae & Friends Athletics Human Resources Library RPInfo Strategic Communications Veterans ENGAGE Apply Now Be Social Contact Us Give to Rensselaer Visit Campus Send Feedback Copyright © 2019 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) Media Policy    |    Web Privacy Policy    |    Student Consumer Information    |    Title IX Policy    |    Accessibility Development is significant step toward skin grafts that can be integrated into patient’s skin

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Maltese among group of scientists who have discovered new therapies to combat cancerPosted On November 3, 2019 – Updated 3 November, 2019 8:35pmReport: Melvic Zammit

A Maltese scientist working with a group of researchers have found a way to re-activate the human immune system to fight cancer cells that can develop.

Dr. David Saliba is optimistic that their research will pave the way for the development of new therapies to fight cancer.

Together with a group of researchers from the University of Malta and the University of Oxford, Dr. David Saliba has for the last four years researched about how immune system cells communicate with each other, especially when it comes to combating cancer.

“The soldiers of the immune system, which are white blood cells, must communicate effectively to recognize destroy cancer cells. They do this on a daily basis, constantly navigating the body, looking for and destroy C- cancer cells, “said Dr. Saliba.

Dr Saliba said the problems begin when the white blood cells stop communicating with each other and cease to combat cancer cells. Dr Saliba explained that the cell mechanism was analysed and were cells that were not active were re-activated.

“We managed to generate bubbles and manufacture very small bubbles synthetically, thus in our laboratory we could revitalize these white cells and these could eventually be used for new therapies that will enable us to raise the white cells to re-recognize cancer cells that have fled from the immune sistem. ”

Dr. David Saliba explained that this development occurred in the research stage. He said that after ensuring health and safety, scientists begin trials on cancer patients. However, he appeared confident that cures for cancer were increasing. He said that if this research continues to give good results, Malta had the potential to be a pioneer in the treatment of cancer.201Other NewsUnions appeal for sporting events to be equipped with First Aid devices

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MILK FROM TEETH: DENTAL STEM CELLS CAN GENERATE MILK-PRODUCING CELLS

November 3, 2019 · by Aviatior · in Biotechnology industryiPS CellsPersonalized TherapiesRegenerative Medicine. · 0 0 Rate This


Credit: Institute of Oral Biology, University of Zurich
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GEN – Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology NewsMary Ann Liebert, Inc. Publishers

HomeGenome EditingGene Therapy  Promising Results Reported in Tay-Sachs Gene Therapy Trial

ESGCT 2019

Promising Results Reported in Tay-Sachs Gene Therapy Trial

By Kevin Davies -October 29, 20190

Source: ESGCT/Mel Cunningham Share

BARCELONA – Researchers have obtained the first signs of clinical benefit in an early-stage gene therapy trial for Tay-Sachs disease, according to a presentation at the European Society of Gene & Cell Therapy (ESGCT) annual conference last week.

Terence R. Flotte, MD, executive deputy chancellor, provost, and dean of the University of Massachusetts (UMass) School of Medicine, presented the results in Barcelona. Flotte is also the editor-in-chief of Human Gene Therapy (a sister journal of GEN).

“Buckle your seatbelts,” commented Fyodor Urnov, PhD, a gene therapy expert at the Innovative Genomics Institute, UC Berkeley, on Twitter. “A gene therapy early-stage success for Tay-Sachs!!!”

Urnov said: “Flotte has long been an inspiration and a leader for the field, and this is just MAGNIFICENT. Tay-Sachs is devastating—but perhaps for not much longer?”

Tay-Sachs is an incurable recessively inherited pediatric genetic disease, a member of a group of lysosomal storage diseases, which is particularly common in individuals of Ashkenazi Jewish descent. Patients have a median life expectancy of approximately three to four years.

Flotte presented preliminary data on two infants in the Phase I trial, which is designed to ascertain safety rather than efficacy. But Flotte said there are early signs that the therapy, which in 2018 was licensed to Axovant Gene Therapies, has the potential to modify the rate of disease progression.

Flotte said that the adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene therapy—AXO-AAV-GM2—had been successfully administered in both children and has been well tolerated so far, with no serious adverse events or clinical abnormalities related to the therapy. The route of therapy is significant: it involves bilateral intrathalamic and intrathecal injection of the virus in an effort to deliver widespread distribution of the replacement enzyme—hexosaminidase A (HexA) throughout the brain and central nervous system.

“This innovative delivery could overcome one of the primary challenges for developing treatments for Tay-Sachs, Sandhoff, and many other severe pediatric genetic disorders, providing much needed hope for these families,” Flotte said.

Flotte said there had been a very modest increase in HexA bioactivity in both patients (less than two percent). More encouragingly, the second patient treated showed signs of increased myelination and a plateau in disease development.

The data presented by Flotte marked “the first reported evidence for potential disease modification in Tay-Sachs disease, and suggest an opportunity for gene replacement therapy to improve outcomes for children with this devastating condition,” said Gavin Corcoran, MD, Axovant’s chief research and development officer, in a statement.

“Myelination is an important component of healthy brain development in infants and is often abnormal in children with Tay-Sachs disease. We were encouraged to see MRI evidence of preserved brain architecture and improved myelination in the early symptomatic child treated at 10 months of age,” Corcoran said.

Flotte presented the preliminary trial findings on behalf of his UMass colleagues including Miguel Sena-Esteves, PhD, associate professor of neurology; Heather Gray-Edwards, PhD, DVM, assistant professor of radiology; and Douglas Martin, PhD, professor of anatomy, physiology, and pharmacology in the College of Veterinary Medicine at Auburn University.

A Phase II trial is being planned.

Record attendance

Flotte’s report was one of several highlights delivered at the ESGCT annual congress, which attracted a record attendance of more than 2,000 scientists last week. Flotte was one of many leading plenary speakers, including Carl June, MD (University of Pennsylvania) and Michel Sadelain, MD (Memorial Sloan Kettering) on CAR-T therapy; David Williams, MD (Boston Children’s Hospital), Matthew Porteus, MD (Stanford University), and Donald Kohn, MD (UCLA) on gene therapy for sickle-cell disease and beta-thalassemia; Fulvio Mulvilio, MD (Audentes Therapeutics) on X-linked myotubular myopathy; and James Wilson, MD (University of Pennsylvania) on safety of gene-editing nucleases.

The conference also marked the third public presentation of prime editing, the novel genome editing technology developed by David Liu, PhD (Broad Institute/HHMI) and colleagues, which was published last week in Nature. The method offers the possibility of engineering any base substitution by using an RNA intermediate.

Despite recent protests in Barcelona, the conference proceeded without incident. The 2020 ESGCT congress will be held in Edinburgh, Scotland, on October 20-23, in collaboration with the British Society for Gene and Cell Therapy. SharePrevious articleProtein-Scaffolding Discovery Shines Light on DNA Repair MechanismsNext articleTargeting the Inner Ear

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